Document Type : Research Paper


English Translation Department, Karaj Branch, Islamic Azad University, Karaj, Iran


This study aimed at investigating the potential of collaborative and e-collaborative writing modalities in developing interactional complexity, utilization of interactional demonstrators and density of interaction. To this end, 66 Iranian intermediate female English as foreign language learners (EFL) were selected to participate in this study according to their scores on Oxford Placement Test (OPT). Participant assignment into experimental group was done on the basis of computer literacy criterion. The conversation analysis of transcribed conversations in collaborative writing and log analysis of e-collaborative writing on e-writing forum indicated that collaborative writing led to more complex interaction than e-collaborative writing on the basis of interaction complexity measure. Significant differences were found in the frequency of interactional resources and demonstrators in two writing modalities using chi-square analysis. Informational demonstrators occurred more in e-collaborative writing, and interactional, attitude and empathic resources occurred more in collaborative writing. Interaction density measure was also in favor of collaborative writing. The results implied that implementation of collaborative tasks is potential technique for the development and assessment of interactional competence.


Alwi, N. A. N. M., Adams, R., & Newton, J. (2012). Writing to learn via text chat: Task implementation and focus on form. Journal of second language writing, 21(1), 23-39.
Arundale, R. B. (2013). Conceptualizing ‘interaction in interpersonal pragmatics: Implications for understanding and research. Journal of pragmatics, 58, 12-26.
Azadi, S. (2015). The role of classroom interaction on the improvement of speaking among Iranian learners. International Journal of Language Learning and Applied Linguistics World, 8(1), 126-135.
Bottema-Beutel, K., & Smith, N. (2013). The interactional construction of identity: An adolescent with autism in interaction with peers. Linguistics and Education, 24(2), 197-214.
Chalak, A., & Karimi, M. (2017). Analysis of turn-taking and repair strategies among male and female Iranian intermediate EFL learners. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4(2), 1-9.
Choi, J. W.-C. (2008). The role of online collaboration in promoting ESL writing. English Language Teaching, 1(1), 34-49.
Collentine, J., & Freed, B. F. (2004). Learning context and its effects on second language acquisition: Introduction. Studies in second Language acquisition, 26(2), 153-171.
Crookes, G. (1990). The utterance, and other basic units for second language discourse analysis. Applied linguistics, 11(2), 183-199.
Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The" what" and" why" of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. The psychological inquiry, 11(4), 227-268.
Dobao, A. F. (2012). Collaborative writing tasks in the L2 classroom: Comparing group, pair, and individual work. Journal of second language writing, 21(1), 40-58.
Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching: Oxford University Press.
Ellis, R., & Barkhuizen, G. P. (2005). Analysing learner language: Oxford University Press, USA.
Ellis, R., Tanaka, Y., & Yamazaki, A. (1994). Classroom interaction, comprehension, and the acquisition of L2 word meanings. Language learning, 44(3), 449-491.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2010). Collaborative writing: Fostering foreign language and writing conventions development. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), 51-71.
Elola, I., & Oskoz, A. (2017). Writing with 21st-century social tools in the L2 classroom: New literacies, genres, and writing practices. Journal of Second Language Writing.
Frear, M. W., & Bitchener, J. (2015). The effects of cognitive task complexity on writing complexity. Journal of second language writing, 30, 45-57.
Fulcher, G. (2003). Testing second language speaking: Pearson Education.
Ghaith, G. (2003). Effects of the learning together model of cooperative learning in English as a foreign language reading achievement, academic self-esteem, and feelings of school alienation. Bilingual Research Journal, 27(3), 451-474.
Goldberg, A., Russell, M., & Cook, A. (2003). The effect of computers on student writing: A meta-analysis of studies from 1992 to 2002. The Journal of Technology, Learning, and Assessment, 2(1), Available from
Hall, J. K., & Smotrova, T. (2013). Teacher self-talk: an Interactional resource for managing instruction and eliciting empathy. Journal of pragmatics, 47(1), 75-92.
Hayes, T., & Ge, X. (2008). The effects of computer-supported collaborative learning on students' writing performance. Paper presented at the Proceedings of the 8th international conference on International conference for the learning sciences-Volume 1.
Hulstijn, J. H. (2011). Language proficiency in native and nonnative speakers: An agenda for research and suggestions for second-language assessment. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8(3), 229-249.
Jalili, M. H., & Shahrokhi, M. (2017). Impact of Collaborative Writing on the Complexity, Accuracy, and Fluency of Iranian EFL Learners’ L2 Writing. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 4(4), 13-28.
Kent, C., Laslo, E., & Rafaeli, S. (2016). Interactivity in online discussions and learning outcomes. Computers & Education, 97, 116-128.
Kim, Y. (2009). The effects of task complexity on learner-learner interaction. System, 37(2), 254-268.
Kitajima, R. (2013). Interactional features of repair negotiation in NS–NNS interaction on two task types: Information gap and personal information exchange. Linguistics and Education, 24(2), 165-178.
Lee, J. J., & Deakin, L. (2016). Interactions in L1 and L2 undergraduate student writing: Interactional metadiscourse in successful and less-successful argumentative essays. Journal of second language writing, 33, 21-34.
Lehtinen, E., Hakkarainen, K., Lipponen, L., Rahikainen, M., & Muukkonen, H. (1999). Computer supported collaborative learning: A review. The JHGI Giesbers reports on education, 10, 1999.
Li, M., & Kim, D. (2016). One wiki, two groups: Dynamic interactions across ESL collaborative writing tasks. Journal of second language writing, 31, 25-42.
Lindgren, E., & Stevenson, M. (2013). Interactional resources in the letters of young writers in Swedish and English. Journal of second language writing, 22(4), 390-405.
Lucas, E. M., Oliveira, T. C., Farias, K., & Alencar, P. S. (2017). CollabRDL: A language to coordinate collaborative reuse. Journal of Systems and Software. 131, 505-527.
Luna, A. M. R., & Ortiz, L. S. H. (2013). Collaborative writing to enhance academic writing development through project work. HOW Journal, 20(1), 130-148.
McDonough, K., & Fuentes, C. s. G. a. (2015). The effect of writing task and task conditions on Colombian EFL learners’ language use. TESL Canada Journal, 32(2), 67.
Mohamadi, Z. (2017). Task engagement: a potential criterion for quality assessment of language learning tasks. Asian-Pacific Journal of Second and Foreign Language Education, 2(1), 3.
Morales, M. C., & Lee, J. S. (2015). Stories of assessment: Spanish–English bilingual children's agency and interactional competence in oral language assessments. Linguistics and Education, 29, 32-45.
Palonen, T., Hakkarainen, K., & Fishman, B. (2013). Patterns of interaction in computer-supported learning: A social network analysis. Paper presented at the Fourth International Conference of the Learning Sciences.
Pardo-Ballester, C., & Cabello, A. C. (2016). L2 collaborative E-writing. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 228, 601-607.
Pinnow, R. J., & Chval, K. B. (2015). “How much You wanna bet?”: Examining the role of positioning in the development of L2 learner interactional competencies in the content classroom. Linguistics and Education, 30, 1-11.
Platt, E., & Brooks, F. B. (2002). Task engagement: A turning point in foreign language development. Language learning, 52(2), 365-400.
Pollitt, A. (2009). The oxford online placement test: The meaning of OPT scores: London: Oxford University Press. Available for download at: http//oxfordenglishtesting. com.
Prohorets, E., & Plekhanova, M. (2015). Interaction intensity levels in a blended learning environment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 174, 3818-3823.
Rabiee, A., Nazarian, Z., & Gharibshaeyan, R. (2013). An explanation for internet use obstacles concerning e-learning in Iran. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(3), 361-376.
Rahimpour, M., & Mohamadi, Z. (2012). Incidental and intentional instruction on discussion techniques: Assessing complexity issue. ISRN Education, Article ID 853460.
Ryshina-Pankova, M. (2011). Developmental changes in the use of interactional resources: Persuading the reader in FL book reviews. Journal of second language writing, 20(4), 243-256.
Samarbakhsh Tehrani, S., Iravani, H., Hessamy, G., & Hemmati, F. (2013). The effects of teachers' interactional moves on learners' uptake in EFL classrooms. Journal of Language and Translation, 3(3), 81-92.
Sato, M. (2014). Exploring the construct of interactional oral fluency: Second Language Acquisition and Language Testing approaches. System, 45, 79-91.
Sharan, S. (1980). Cooperative learning in small groups: Recent methods and effects on achievement, attitudes, and ethnic relations. Review of educational research, 50(2), 241-271.
Shively, R. L. (2015). Developing interactional competence during study abroad: Listener responses in L2 Spanish. System, 48, 86-98.
Turner, C. (2012). Classroom assessment. Routledge handbook of language testing, 61-74.
Twiner, A., Littleton, K., Coffin, C., & Whitelock, D. (2014). Meaning making as an interactional accomplishment: A temporal analysis of intentionality and improvisation in classroom dialogue. International Journal of Educational Research, 63, 94-106.
Urdan, T., & Schoenfelder, E. (2006). Classroom effects on student motivation: Goal structures, social relationships, and competence beliefs. Journal of school psychology, 44(5), 331-349.
Yazdi-Amirkhiz, S. Y., Ajideh, P., & Leitner, G. (2016). The influence of collaboration on individual writing quality: the case of Iranian vs. Malaysian college students. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning,17(8), 1-24
Young, R., & He, A. W. (1998). Talking and testing: Discourse approaches to the assessment of oral proficiency (Vol. 14): John Benjamins Publishing.
Zhang, S., Liu, Q., Chen, W., Wang, Q., & Huang, Z. (2017). Interactive networks and social knowledge construction behavioral patterns in primary school teachers' online collaborative learning activities. Computers & Education, 104, 1-17.
Zheng, B., & Warschauer, M. (2017). Epilogue: Second language writing in the age of computer-mediated communication. Journal of Second Language Writing.