Document Type : Research Paper


Department of English Language and Literature, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Urmia University, Urmia, West Azarbaijan, Iran


Inspired by Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory (SCT), the current study intended to investigate the effect of summary training (i.e., oral and written) on intermediate EFL learners’ reading comprehension in different conditions (i.e., individual and collaborative). Data collection tools and procedures encompassed PET test, First Certificate in English (FCE) reading pre-test, and post-test. First, to ensure that the instruments, scoring, as well as summary training procedures were reliable, the researchers conducted a pilot test. During the main study, 120 Iranian EFL intermediate male and female learners aged from 16-18 were considered as the main participants. Learners were divided into 6 groups (i.e., three individual and three collaborative conditions). Furthermore, each condition included three groups with oral summary, written summary groups, and no summary group. A post-test followed the treatment that lasted for 6 sessions. A series of ANOVA with follow up pair-wise comparisonsand a series of independent-samples t-tests indicated that: (1) summary training, especially the oral one, was more effective in enhancing the EFL learners’ reading comprehension, and (2) members of the collaborative groups outperformed the members of the individual groups regarding their reading comprehension development. The theoretical and practical implications are discussed concerning enhancing the EFL learners’ reading comprehension.


Adams, E. T. (1995). The effects of cooperative learning on the achievement and self-esteem levels of students in the inclusive classroom (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis).Wayne State University.
Akkakoson, S. (2012). Raising strategic awareness of Thai EFL students of science and technology disciplines through metacognitive strategy training. 3L; Language, Linguistics and Literature, The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 18(4), 35-47.
Anderson, N. J. (1991). Individual differences in strategy use in second language reading and testing. Modern Language Journal, 75, 460-472.
Behjat, F., Yamini, M., & Bagheri, M. S. (2012). Blended learning: A ubiquitous learning environment for reading comprehension. International Journal of English Linguistics, 2(1), 97-105.
Brown, A. L., & Day, J. D. (1983). Macro rules for summarizing texts: the development of expertise. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 22, 1-14.
Bruffee, K. A. (1984). Collaborative learning and the conversation of mankind. College English, 28(1), 181- 8.
Carrell, P. L. (1989). Metacognitive awareness and second language reading. Modern Language Journal, 73, 121-134.
Corder-Ponce, W. L. (2000). Summarization interaction: Effects on foreign language comprehension and summarization of expository texts. Reading Research and Instruction, 39(4), 329-350.
Dymock, S., & Nicholson, T. (2007). Reading comprehension: What is it? How do you teach it? Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Council for Educational Research.
Gough, P. B., & Tunmer, W. E. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading ability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6-10. 
Gow, L., & Kember, D. (1990). Does higher education promote independent learning? Higher Education, 19(3), 307-322.
Grabe, W. (1991). Current developments in second language reading. TESOL Quarterly, 25, 375-396.
Grabe, W. (2009). Reading in a second language: Moving from theory to practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Grabe, W., & Stoller, F. L. (2002). Teaching and researching reading. Harlow: Longman.
Huan, N. B., & Thi Kim Ngan, N. (2017). Summarizing strategy: Potential tool to promote English as a foreign language (EFL) students’ reading comprehension in a vocational school, Vietnam. European Journal of Education Studies, 3(8), 51-72.
Huang, W. C. (2014). The effects of multimedia annotation and summary writing on Taiwanese EFL students’ reading comprehension. The Reading Matrix, 14(1), 136-153.
Hwang, W. Y., Wang, C. Y., & Sharples, M. (2007). A Study of multimedia annotation of web-based materials. Computers & Education, 48, 680-699.
Jalilifar, A. (2010). The effect of cooperative learning techniques on college students reading comprehension. System, 38, 96–108.
Jenkinson, R. (1998). The discoursal construction of identity in academic writing. London: John Benjamins.
Juel, C. (1988). Learning to read and write: A longitudinal study of 54 children from first to fourth grades. Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 437-447.
Kazemi, M. (2012). The effect of Jigsaw technique on the learners’ reading achievement: The case of English as L2. MJAL, 4(3), 170-184.
Khoshsima, H., & Rezaeian Tiyar, F. (2014). The effect of summarizing strategy on reading comprehension of Iranian intermediate EFL learners. International Journal of Language and Linguistics, 2(3), 134-139.
Kintsch, W., & van Dijk, T. A. (1978). Toward a model of text comprehension and production. Psychological Review, 85(5), 363–394.
Kobayashi, M. (2002). Method effects on reading comprehension test performance: Text organization and response format. Language Testing, 19(2), 193–220.
Mackey, A., & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research: Methodology and design. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Marzec-Stawiarska, M. (2016). The influence of summary writing on the development of reading skills in a foreign language. System, 59, 90-99.
Masoud Kabir, F., & Aghajanzadeh Kiasii, Gh. (2018). The effect of collaborative strategic reading on EFL learners’ reading comprehension and vocabulary knowledge. European Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, 3(1), 1-16. 
McDonough, K., Crawford, W. J., & De Vleeschauwer, J. (2014). Summary writing in a Thai EFL university context. Journal of Second Language Writing, 24, 20-32.
Mokeddem, S., & Houcine, S. (2016). Exploring the relationship between summary writing ability and reading comprehension: Toward an EFL writing-to-read instruction. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 7(2), 197-205.
Pressley, M. (2000). What should comprehension instruction be the instruction of? In M. L. Kamil, P. B. Mosenthal, P. D. Pearson, & R. Barr (Eds.), Handbook of reading research (pp. 545-562). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Rahmani, M., & Sadeghi, K. (2009). The effect of note-taking strategy training on reading comprehension and recall of Iranian EFL learners (Unpublished Master's Thesis). Urmia University, Urmia, Iran.
Rasti, I. (2011). Involving the reader in the text: Engagement markers in native and non-native student argumentative essays (Unpublished Doctoral Thesis). The University of Liverpool.
Soleimani, H., & Hajghani, S. (2013). The effect of teaching reading comprehension strategies on Iranian EFL pre-university students' reading comprehension ability. International Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 5(5), 594-600.
Sweet, A. P., & Snow, C. E. (Eds.).  (2003). Rethinking reading comprehension. New York: Guilford Press, pp. 12-30.
Tavakoli, M., Dabaghi, A., & Khorvash, Z. (2010). The Effect of meta-discourse awareness on L2 reading comprehension: A case of Iranian EFL learners. English Language Teaching, 3(1), 92-102.
Thompson, G. (2001). Interaction in academic writing: learning to argue with the reader.  Applied Linguistics, 22(1), 58-78.
Torgesen, J. K. (2002). The prevention of reading difficulties. Journal of School Psychology, 41, 7-26.
Vygotsky, L. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Yu, G. (2007a). Effects of source texts on summarization performance. Paper presented at the Language Testing Research Colloquium (29th). Barcelona, Spain.
Yu, G. (2007b). Students’ voices in the evaluation of their written summaries: Empowerment and democracy for test-takers? Language Testing, 24(4), 539-572.
Zarrati, Z., Nambiar, R. M. K., & Massum, T. N. R. (2012). Effect of meta-discourse on reading comprehension of Iranian EFL learners. The Southeast Asian Journal of English Language Studies, 20(3),27-38.