Document Type : Research Paper


Department of English Language and Literature, Allameh Tabataba'i University, Tehran, Iran


Regarding problems with traditional models of instruction, EFL learners need to exercise innovative models of learning. For this purpose, flipped classroom instruction may render an effective learning environment. The purpose of this study was to determine how flipped instruction may increase learners’ engagement. Therefore, 100 Iranian EFL intermediate students, selected based on convenience sampling, participated in this study. The students were then randomly assigned to the experimental (n=50) and control group (n=50). Those in the experimental group were instructed by a flipped classroom model for 10 sessions, while the control group participants were instructed on traditional methods. Before and after treatment, all the participants filled out the “Classroom Engagement Inventory” by Wang, Bergin, and Bergin (2014) which served as the pre and post-tests. A repeated measures ANCOVA was conducted to analyze the pre and post-tests of the experimental and control groups. The results indicated that the students' level of engagement in the experimental group increased in comparison to the performance of the students in the control group. Moreover, a semi-structured interview was conducted to find out students' perceptions of this model. Thematic analysis of the interview indicated that the students had positive perceptions of the model; believed that classroom and home activities remarkably increased their engagement; and preferred the role of the teacher in a flipped classroom than in a traditional one.It can be implicated that educators need to focus on the innovative methods of instruction by utilizing different technological tools.     


Main Subjects

Ayçiçek, B., & Y. Yelken, T. (2018). The effect of flipped classroom model on students’ classroom engagement in teaching English. International Journal of Instruction11(2), 385-398.
Bishop, J. L., Verleger, M. F. (2013). The Flipped Classroom: A survey of the Research. Paper presented at the ASEE National Conference Proceedings, Atlanta, GA.     
Brown, A. (2012). A Phenomenological Study of Undergraduate Instructors using the Inverted or Flipped Classroom Model. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest UMI. (3545198)
Boyer, A. (2013). The flipped classroom: Catering for difference. Teacher Learning Network. 20 (1), 28-29.
Butt, A. (2014). Student views on the use of a flipped-classroom approach: evidence from Australia. Business Education & Accreditation, 6(1), 33-43. 
Creswell, J.W. (2009). Mapping the field of mixed methods research. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 3(2), 95-108. 
Elian, Sh. & Hamaidi, D. (2018). The effect of using flipped classroom strategy on the academic achievement of fourth-grade students in Jordan. IJET13(2), 110-125.
Elliot, Rob. (2014). Do students like the flipped classroom? An investigation of student reaction to a flipped undergraduate IT course. In Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE), 2014 IEEE (pp. 1–7), IEEE.
Evseeva, A. & Solozhenko, A. (2015). Use of flipped classroom technology in language learning. Procedia – Social and Behavioral Sciences, 20, 205-209.
Enfield, J. (2013). Looking at the impact of the flipped classroom model of instruction on undergraduate multimedia students at CSUN. TechTrends, 57(6), 14-27.
Farrah, M., & Qawasmeh, A. (2018). English students' attitudes towards using flipped classrooms in language learning at Hebron University. Research in English Language Pedagogy. RELP, 6(2), 275-294.
Flipped Learning Network (2014).  What is flipped learning? The four pillars of F-L-I-P.
Fisher, R., Ross, B., LaFerriere, R., & Martiz, A. (2017). Flipped learning, flipped satisfaction, getting the balance right. Teaching & Learning Inquiry, 5(2), 114-126. 5.2.9.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Branigan, C. (2005). Positive emotions broaden the scope of attention andthought‐action repertoires. Cognition & Emotion, 19(3), 313-332. Doi: 10.1080/02699930441000238.
Fredricks, J. A., Blumenfeld, P. C., & Paris, A. (2004). School engagement:  Potential of the concept: State of the evidence. Review of Educational Research, 74(1), 59–119. 3074001059.
Glowa, L. & Goodell, J. (2016). Student-centered learning: Functional requirements for integrated systems to optimize learning. Vienna, VA.International Association for K-12 Online Learning (iNACOL).
Granito, M., & Chernobilsky, E., (2012). The effect of technology on a student’s motivation and knowledge retention. Northeaster Education Research Association (NERA) Annual Conference, 17, 1-22.
Han, J. Y. (2015). Successfully flipping the ESL classroom for learner autonomy. New York State TESOL Journal, 2(1)98-109.
 Hantla, B. F. (2014). The effects of flipping the classroom on specific aspects of critical thinking in a Christian college: A quasi-experimental, mixed-methods study. [Doctoral dissertation]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest document ID: 1547356249).
Harper, S. R., & Quaye, S. J. (2009). Student engagement in higher education: theoretical perspectives and practical approaches for diverse populations. New York: Routledge.
Henrie, C.R, Halverson, L.R, Graham, C.R. (2015). Measuring student engagement in technology-mediated learning: A review. Computers & Education, 90(1), 36–53.
Homma, J. E. B. (2015). Learner autonomy and practice in a flipped EFL classroom: Perception and perspectives in new digital environment. Chiba University of Commerce Review, 52(2), 253-275.
Hunley, R. C. (2016). Teacher and student perceptions on high school scienceflipped classrooms: Educational breakthrough or media hype? Unpublished Ph.D.dissertation, East Tennessee State University, USA.
James, A.J., Chin, C. K. H. & Williams, B. R. (2014). Using the flipped classroom to improve student engagement and to prepare graduates to meet maritime industry requirements: a focus on maritime education. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs, 13(2), 331-343.
Johnson-Smith, T. R. (2014). Student engagement and academic achievement in technology enhanced and traditional classroom environments. [Doctoral dissertation], Liberty University. Lynchburg, VA.
Karimi, M. & Hamzavi, R. (2017). The effect of flipped model of instruction on EFL learners’ reading comprehension: Learners’ attitudes in focus. Advances in Language and Literary Studies, 8(1), 95-103.
Khosravani, M., Khoshsima, H., & Mohamadian, A. (2020). On the effect of flipped classroom on learners’ achievement, autonomy, motivation and WTC: Investigating learning and learner variables. Journal of English Language Teaching and Learning, 12(25), 175-189.
Kvavik, R. B., Caruso, J. B. & Morgan, G. (2004). ECAR study of students and information technology 2004: Convenience, connection, and control. Boulder, CO: EDUCAUSE Center for Applied Research. 784 British Journal of Educational Technology, 39(5).
Kinzie, J. (2010). Student engagement and learning: Experiences that matter. In J. Christensen Hughes & J. Mighty (Eds.), Taking stock: Research on teaching and learning in higher education (pp. 139-153). Montreal & Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.
Kuh, G. D. (2009). The national survey of student engagement: Conceptual and empirical foundations. New Directions for Institutional Research2009(141), 5-20.
Mackey, A & Gass, S. M. (2005). Second language research. Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
 Petrillo, J. (2016). On flipping first-semester calculus: A case study. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 47(4), 573–582.
Prince, M. (2004). Does active learning work? A review of the research. Journal of Engineering Education, 93(3), 223-231.
Quint, C. L. (2015). A study of the efficacy of the flipped classroom model in a university mathematics class (Order No. 3707108). Available from ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global: Social Sciences. http:/ 1695832181? Accountid=142908.  
Richards, J. C., & Bohlke, D. (2012). Four Corners3. New York: Cambridge University Press. 
Roach, T. (2014). Student perceptions toward flipped learning: New methods to increase interaction and active learning in economics. International Review of Economics Education, 17, 74-84. doi: 10.1016/j.iree.2014.08.003.
Sankey, M. D., & Hunt, L. (2013). Using technology to enable flipped classrooms whilst sustaining sound pedagogy. In H.  Carter, M. Gosper & J. Hedberg (Eds.), Electric Dreams (p. 785-795). Proceedings Ascilite.
Sever, G. (2014). The application of flipped learning model on ındividual violin lessons.
Journal of Qualitative Research in Education, 2(2), 27–42.
Strayer, J. F. (2007). The effects of the classroom flip on the learning environment: A comparison of learning activity in a traditional classroom and a flip classroom that used an intelligent tutoring system. (Doctoral Dissertation), the Ohio State University. Pdf? osu1189523914.
Strayer, J. F. (2012). How learning in an inverted classroom influences cooperation innovation and task orientation. Learning Environments Research, 15(2) 1-23.
Tétreault, L. P. (2013).  The flipped classroom: Cultivating student engagement.  A Project Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master Thesis, Simon Fraser University, and Canada.
Taylor, L. & Parsons, J. (2011). Improving Student Engagement. Current Issues in Education, 14(1), 1-33 
Trowler, V. (2010). Student engagement literature review. York, UK: Higher Education Academy.
Tsai, Y. R. (2019). Promotion of learner autonomy within the framework of a flipped EFL instructional model: Perception and perspectives. Computer Assisted Language Learning1(1), 1-32.
  Wang, Z, Bergin, C., & Bergin, D. A. (2014). Measuring engagement in fourth to twelfth-grade classrooms: The classroom engagement inventory. School Psychology Quarterly, 29(4), 517-535.
Wiginton, L. B. (2013).  Flipped instruction: An investigation into the effect of learning environment on student self-efficacy, learning style, and academic achievement in an algebra I classroom.  [Unpublished Doctoral Thesis], Tuscaloosa, Alabama, USA.
Willms, J. D., Friesen, S. & Milton, P. (2009). What did you do in school today?  Transforming classrooms through social, academic and intellectual engagement. (First National Report) Toronto: Canadian Education Association.
Yujing, N. (2015). Influence of flipped classroom on learner's empowerment: A study based on English writing courses in China. Journal of Literature, Languages and Linguistics, 12(1), 1-7.
Zainuddin, Z., & Attaran, M. (2015). Malaysian students’ perceptions of flipped   classroom: A case study. Innovations in Educationand Teaching International,53(6), 660–670.