Document Type : Research Paper


Department of Foreign Languages, Naein Branch, Islamic Azad University, Naein, Iran.


Research on native vs. non-native formulaic language use in academic texts, despite its wealth in scope and frequency, lacks an inclusive conceptualization of a non-native language learning context. Impressed by such a flawed approach, the bulk (if not all) of studies in the field compared the use of different multi-word strings in the academic discourse of either foreign or second language learners with a native baseline. The current study sought to address the gap, focusing on the structural and functional use of lexical bundles in two culturally parallel corpora developed in two non-native learning context modes: English as a foreign (EFL) and second (ESL) language. To this end, research reports written by Iranian Applied Linguistics MA and Ph.D. learners studying in different universities in Iran and English-speaking provinces of Canada were compared by a structurally similar native corpus, running cross-tabulation, Chi-square, and residual analysis analyses. The results revealed a significant association between language learning context and lexical bundle use on a functional level. The contextual variations yielded significantly different patterns of use concerning several micro-functions underlying text-oriented and research-oriented functions. Compared to functional differences, the between-corpus structural differences were inconspicuous, specifically concerning micro-structures constituting noun, prepositional, and verb phrase-related bundles. The study embraced the notion that EFL writers need to have immense exposure and enhanced language input available in ESL and native learning contexts to foster a native-like formulaic language.  


Main Subjects

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